THE IRISH SLAVES:WHAT THEY WILL NEVER, EVER TELL YOU IN HISTORY CLASS OR ANYWHERE ELSE…

White and Black Slaves in the Sugar Plantations of Barbados. None of the Irish victims ever made it back to their homeland to describe their ordeal. These are the lost slaves; the ones that time and biased history books conveniently forgot.
The first slaves imported into the American colonies were 100 White children. They arrived during Easter, 1619, four months before the arrival of a the first shipment of Black slaves.Mainstream histories refer to these laborers as indentured servants, not slaves, because many agreed to work for a set period of time in exchange for land and rights.

Yet in reality, indenture was enslavement, since slavery applies to any person who is bought and sold, chained and abused, whether for a decade or a lifetime. Many white people died long before their indenture ended or found that no court would back them when their owners failed to deliver on promises.Tens of thousands of convicts, beggars, homeless children and other undesirable English, Scottish, and Irish lower class were transported to America against their will to the Americas on slave ships. YES SLAVE SHIPS.

Many of the white slaves were brought from Ireland, where the law held that it was ?no more sin to kill an Irishman than a dog or any other brute.? The European rich class caused a lot of suffering to these people , even if they were white like them.In 1676, there was a huge slave rebellion in Virginia. Black and white slaves burned Jamestown to the ground. Hundreds died. The planters feared a re-occurence. Their solution was to divide the races against each other. They instilled a sense of superiority in the white slaves and degraded the black slaves. White slaves were given new rights; their masters could not whip them naked without a court order,etc. White slaves whose daily condition was no different from that of Blacks, were taught that they belonged to a superior people. The races were given different clothing. Living quarters were segregated for the first time. But the whites were still slaves.

In the 17th Century, from 1600 until 1699, there were many more Irish sold as slaves than Africans. There are records of Irish slaves well into the 18th Century.Many never made it off the ships. According to written record, in at least one incident 132 slaves, men, women, and children, were dumped overboard to drown because ships’ supplies were running low. They were drowned because the insurance would pay for an “accident,” but not if the slaves were allowed to starve.
Typical death rates on the ships were from 37% to 50%.In the West Indies, the African and Irish slaves were housed together, but because the African slaves were much more costly, they were treated much better than the Irish slaves. Also, the Irish were Catholic, and Papists were hated among the Protestant planters. An Irish slave would endure such treatment as having his hands and feet set on fire or being strung up and beaten for even a small infraction. Richard Ligon, who witnessed these things first-hand and recorded them in a history of Barbados he published in 1657, stated:”Truly, I have seen cruelty there done to servants as I did not think one Christian couldhave done to another.”(5)According to Sean O’Callahan, in To Hell or Barbados, Irish men and women were inspected like cattle there, just as the Africans were.

In addition, Irish slaves, who were harder to distinguish from their owners since they shared the same skin color, were branded with the owner’s initials, the women on the forearm and the men on the buttocks. O’Callahan goes on to say that the women were not only sold to the planters as sexual slaves but were often sold to local brothels as well. He states that the black or mulatto overseers also often forced the women to strip while working in the fields and often used them sexually as well.(6)The one advantage the Irish slaves had over the African slaves was that since they were literate and they did not survive well in the fields, they were generally used as house servants, accountants, and teachers. But the gentility of the service did not correlate to the punishment for infractions.

Flogging was common, and most slave owners did not really care if they killed an easily replaceable, cheap Irish slave.While most of these slaves who survived were eventually freed after their time of service was completed, many leaving the islands for the American colonies, many were not, and the planters found another way to insure a free supply of valuable slaves. They were quick to “find solace” and start breeding with the Irish slave women. Many of them were very pretty, but more than that, while most of the Irish were sold for only a period of service, usually about 10 years assuming they survived, their children were born slaves for life.

The planters knew that most of the mothers would remain in servitude to remain with their children even after their service was technically up.The planters also began to breed the Irish women with the African male slaves to make lighter skinned slaves, because the lighter skinned slaves were more desirable and could be sold for more money. A law was passed against this practice in 1681, not for moral reasons but because the practice was causing the Royal African Company to lose money. According to James F. Cavanaugh, this company, sent 249 shiploads of slaves to the West Indies in the 1680’s, a total of 60,000 African and Irish, 14,000 of whom died in passage.(7)While the trade in Irish slaves tapered off after the defeat of King James in 1691, England once again shipped out thousands of Irish prisoners who were taken after the Irish Rebellion of 1798.

These prisoners were shipped to America and to Australia, specifically to be sold as slaves.No Irish slave shipped to the West Indies or America has ever been known to have returned to Ireland. Many died, either in passage or from abuse or overwork. Others won their freedom and emigrated to the American colonies. Still others remained in the West Indies, which still contain an population of “Black Irish,” many the descendents of the children of black slaves and Irish slaves.In 1688, the first woman killed in Cotton Mather’s witch trials in Massachusetts was an old Irish woman named Anne Glover, who had been captured and sold as a slave in 1650.

She spoke no English. She could recite The Lord’s Prayer in Gaelic and Latin, but without English, Mather decided her Gaelic was discourse with the devil, and hung her.It was not until 1839 that a law was passed in England ending the slave trade, and thus the trade in Irish slaves.It is unfortunate that, while the descendents of black slaves have kept their history alive and not allowed their atrocity to be forgotten, the Irish heritage of slavery in America and the West Indies has been largely ignored or forgotten.

REFERENCE:
It is my hope that this article will help in some small way to change that and to commemoratethese unfortunate people.NOTES) John P. Prendergast, The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland, Dublin, ?, 1865(2) Ibid.(3) See, for example, Thomas Addis Emmet, Ireland Under English Rule, NY & London,Putnam, 1903(4) Prendergast, The Conwellian Settlment of Ireland(5) Richard Ligon, A True and Exact History of Barbadoes, London,Cass, 1657, reprinted 1976(6)Sean O’Callaghan, To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, (Dingle, Ireland: Brandon, 2001)(6) James F. Cavanaugh, Clan Chief Herald(7) For Mather’s account of the case, see Cotton Mather, Memorable Providences, Relating ToWitchcrafts And Possessions (1689)

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Alcohol Drinkers Live Longer

(CBS) Drink up… that is if you want to live a few years longer.

That’s the highly unusual conclusion of a new study which suggests that non-drinkers die sooner than heavy drinkers. Moderate drinkers fair the best.

The paper, which appears in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, took a look at 1,824 participants over 20 years, according to Time.com. Sixty-three percent of them were men.

Scientists, led by psychologist Charles Holahan of the University of Texas at Austin, filtered out “socioeconomic status, level of physical activity, number of close friends, quality of social support,” according to the site, and still found that nondrinkers just don’t live as long as their drinking compatriots. Over the 20-year period, 69 percent of the nondrinkers died, 60 percent of the heavy drinkers died and only 41 percent of the moderate drinkers died.

Moderate drinking, according to Time, was defined as one to three drinks per day.

The findings are certainly confusing, since heavy drinking can lead to liver failure, mouth cancer and heart problems. And being a drunk can ruin friendships, career and family.

Still, as odd as it may seem, the old saying, “drink to your health,” may be wise after all.

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Kenya celebrates 50 years of independence

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Kenya celebrated 50 years of independence in a ceremony that was held at the Safaricom Stadium in Kasarani, Nairobi on Thursday.

President Uhuru Kenyatta graced the occassion that was attended by leaders from Africa and beyond. Deputy President William Ruto was also at the stadium.

The heads of states present were: Democratic Republic of Congo Head of State Joseph Kabila, Sri Lanka President Mahinda Rajapaksa and his first lady, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete and Gabon’s president Ali Bongo.

Also in attendance were President Ian Khama (Botswana), President Salva Kiir (South Sudan), Goodluck Jonathan (Nigeria), Joyce Banda (Malawi) and Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn.

Others included former President Mwai Kibaki, Former first lady Mama Ngina Kenyatta, Former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo and former Kenya’s Prime Minister Raila Odinga.

The visiting dignitaries joined an estimated 60, 000 people at the stadium. Millions of Kenyans are also following the proceedings at the stadium from home through live radio and television broadcasts.

On Thursday Morning (midnight), President Uhuru graced the hoisting of the Kenyan flag at Uhuru gardens, an occasion akin to another one on December 12, 1963, which was presided over by his father, founding President Jomo Kenyatta.Uhuru planted a tree close to another one that was planted by the founding President at independence 50 years ago.

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Mugabe tells off Obama on freedom

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Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe shouted down US President Barack Obama as he delivered his speech at the funeral service for Nelson Mandela claiming Obama was ‘inciting’ Africans against their elected leaders.

Part of Mr Obama’s speech about political dissent angered Mr Mugabe, who shouted in his traditional clenched fist: “How about Snowden! Where is Assange? Double standards!”

The US president however ignored Mr Mugabe’s rants and went ahead to greet leaders without making exceptions.

He greeted among others, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta who has been indicted by the ICC and Cuban leader Raul Castro.

During his eulogy, Mr Obama had claimed there are leaders who pretend to be inspired by Madiba but cannot allow divergent views in their own countries.

“There are too many leaders who claim solidarity with Madiba’s struggle for freedom, but do not tolerate dissent from their own people,” Mr Obama said. It is this statement which angered Mugabe, prompting his outbursts about Obama also not allowing dissent.

Mr Mugabe later said he will mourn Mandela but not alongside people who were ‘busy protecting Apartheid’.

“See how the pretenders of Europe were many there. . .all of them defended Apartheid. . .we defeated them”, said Mr Mugabe.

During Mandela’s stint as president, he often clashed with the Zimbabwean leader over democratic principles.

President Mugabe told the South African Broadcasting Corporation early this year that Mandela was too saintly, saying he went too far in trying to accommodate white people. AFP.

 

IN OTHER NEWS.

President Robert Mugabe was cheered at the memorial service to Nelson Mandela. The cameraman focused on Mugabe and the crowd cheered. Mugabe is well regarded on the continent for fighting against white supremacy and standing up to the west. However, South Africa President Jacob Zuma did not receive the receiption he expected as he was booed at the start of the memorial service, in stark contrast to the rapturous applause received by Thabo Mbeki.

Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe proved pretty popular.

Crowds at the stadium both booed and cheered when Zuma entered the stadium and made his way onto the stage for the service, which started an hour later than the scheduled starting time of 11:00.

President Zuma’s name was skipped in the formal introduction by ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa in an effort to avoid more jeering.

The ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa urged the crowd to show restraint and be disciplined.

“We should show the same level of discipline as Madiba exuded,” Ramaphosa said.

More booing was heard when Zuma’s name was mentioned, while the crowds cheered loudly when the names of former presidents Kgalema Motlanthe, Thabo Mbeki and FW de Klerk were mentioned.

Zuma was seen with a stony expression, cleaning his glasses. Sapa reported he was seated between two of his wives, Gloria Bongekile Ngema and Thobeka Stacy Mabhija.

The Most Regrettable Rapper Tattoos Of All Time. I HAVE ONE MYSELF!!

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Rappers and tattoos go together like beats and rhymes. It’s rare that you see one without the other. Your favorite rapper probably has at least some semblance of body art on his or her flesh, and many have seen more ink than an octopus.

Some tattoos are good and some are just downright terribly, horribly, and regrettably bad. The former is something along the lines of Tupac’s infamous “Thug Life” tattoo. The abdominal tat was simple, declarative, well done, and could be covered up with just about anything besides a crop top.

Many are poorly drawn and most have either been crossed out and/or covered up. Whatever the case, all of them are prominently placed, permanently visible mistakes. Hopefully their parents will understand. Here is our list of the most regrettable rapper tattoos of all time.

 

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Flo RidaJimi Hendrix

From the top of his massive shoulder to his equally big bicep, Flo Rida has a tattoo of Rock legend Jimi Hendrix. Unfortunately, Hendrix looks more like a Beatle with a wilted Afro.His facial features aren’t defined and neither is his iconic wild hair.

Poor artwork aside, it seems strange that the pop rapper responsible for songs like “Low” and “Right Round” would get a tattoo of a major figure of ’60s counter-culture. When asked about it in a 2009 interview, Rida had this to say:“[Hendrix] kinda reminds me of myself, very laid back, but when he gets on the stage he’s electrifying… If I had to go with anyone tattooed on my arm, I had to get something different, so I chose Jimi.”

If he’d just used Google, Rida would’ve seen the hundreds of “different” Hendrix tats out there. He also might’ve found a better tattoo artist.

 

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The Game – Butterfly

First it was a butterfly that The Game said was supposed to signify “new life.” Then he said it looked like a “moth” and attempted to cover it with the L.A. Dodgers logo. With the moth-fly still slightly visible, The Game stamped a permanent giant red star over it. As far as we can tell, the latest edition of the tat probably symbolizes The Game’s belief that he’s the star of L.A. rap.

In 2011, when talking to VladTV about face tats The Game said, “Know what you want to get.” With not one, but two cover-ups, you’d think all he’d have to do was point and shake his head.

 

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Iggy Azalea – Live.Love.A$AP

The Australian-born Iggy Azalea dated New York’s A$AP Rocky for a brief period between 2011 and 2012. The two were so taken with one another that Azalea claims they got tats signifying their affection. Though Rocky’s supposed tat isn’t visible, Azalea inked the title of Rocky’s debut mixtape, Live.Love.A$AP, on three of her fingers.

After the two rappers split, Azalea had the “A$AP” on her pinky permanently crossed out. Whether or not she and Rocky get back together, Azalea’s tat gives a whole new meaning to the term “Ex.”

 

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Jermaine DupriJanet Jackson

Though Dupri isn’t technically a rapper these days, he’s rapped before (see: “Money Ain’t A Thang”), and has produced for a number of rappers over the years. In 2009, while still dating Janet Jackson, Dupri inked a portrait of her on his torso. The tat was reported to be in honor of Jackson’s 43rd birthday.

Then, after seven years of dating, the two parted ways. Though Jackson has said that she and Dupri remain friends and still “talk,” we’re sure Dupri remembers what he went through for that tattoo. Whether or not he’s made any changes the body art since the breakup remains unreported, but hopefully his future girlfriends will understand.

 

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T-Pain – Facebook

Most people go to Hawaii for the weather, the beach, and the waves. T-Pain, everyone’s favorite “rapper ternt sanga,” goes for tattoos. “I get a tat every time I come to Hawaii,” Pain said on Twitter back in 2011 when he posted a photo of the tat on his arm. “I think this one’s pretty sweet, unless Facebook shuts down soon.”

Judging by the tweet, T-Pain clearly has doubts about his topical body art. A small part of him must know that the likelihood of Facebook still being around when he hits middle age is low. For his sake, hopefully auto-tune will be.

 

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Birdman – 5 Red Stars

Though there’s only one red star in the picture, Cash Money co-founder/rapper and record producer Baby (Birdman) now has a total of five red stars on his head

Maybe the stars signify his album 5 Star Stunna. Maybe they mean Baby feels his solo records deserve five stars, as they’ve rarely (or probably never) been rated that highly. Or maybe Baby is just a masochist. “It became a hobby,” Baby said of his body art fetish in an interview with Tim Westwood TV. “I love that pain. I love to feel that.”

Though the stars on his luminescent dome seem bright and shiny now, it’s only a matter of time and aging before they become dimmed and wrinkly. But if Baby has any regrets when that day comes, maybe he can get someone to donate some hair for a wig.

 

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 Gucci Mane  – Ice Cream Cone

Gucci’s ice cream cone face tattoo is probably one of the most widely known of all rap related tats. The three scoops, the lightning bolts, and his signature “Brrr” ad-lib on the cone — it’s an oddity, to say the least. In 2011, long before he was in Spring Breakers, Gucci told MTV the tattoo represented the fact that he believed he was “the coldest MC in the game.” We think the ice cream cone might be an early marketing campaign for some chain of ice cream franchises Gucci plans to launch in the near future, though we’re still not sure about the lightning bolts. Gucci has yet to remove the tat, and therefore still believes he is the “coldest MC.”

 

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Yung LA – Pink Duck

You have to be a certain type of rapper to get a pink duck tatted on your face. Former Grand Hustle artist Yung LA got said face tat back in 2011, just after splitting with the label.

LA initially claimed the duck had something to do with the “Duct Tape” movement where he’s from in Atlanta. However Alley Boy and Big Bank Black, rappers and CEOs of Duct Tape Entertainment, believe the tat had a strong resemblance to their label’s logo. Both felt it was disrespectful, as LA apparently had no affiliation with the label.

LA has since covered up the duck with a large “LA” logo. Given his predilection for body art, Yung LA will probably get many more face tats. As for the future of this seemingly popular pink duck, someone might want to snatch him up for a cartoon series and really cash in.

 

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Gorilla Zoe – Money Talks

Gorilla Zoe has a tattoo of hundred-dollar bill on his vocal chords with the words “Money Talks” emblazoned beneath it. As if that weren’t self-explanatory, Zoe says it’s because “every time [he] spits, it’s worth money.” With nearly all of his mixtapes available for free and his often poorly selling albums few and far between, hopefully Zoe gets paid more than $100 every time he raps. If Chris Tucker or Charlie Sheen ever decide to come after Zoe for copyright infringement, he’ll need every cent.

 

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